Width tolerance of narrow cut strips and coil cut strips II (GB/T 3280-2015)

(unit:mm)

Nominal thickness

Nominal width

≤40

>40~125

>125~250

>250~600

PW.A

PW.B

PW.A

PW.B

PW.A

PW.B

PW.A

PW.B

0.05-~0.25

+0.17

0

+0.13

0

+0.20

0

+0.15

0

+0.25

0

+0.20

0

+0.50

0

+0.50

0

0.25-~0.50

+0.20

0

+0.15

0

+0.25

0

+0.20

0

+0.30

0

+0.22

0

+0.60

0

+0.50

0

0.50-~1.00

+0.25

0

+0.20

0

+0.30

0

+0.22

0

+0.40

0

+0.25

0

+0.70

0

+0.60

0

1.00-~1.50

+0.30

0

+0.22

0

+0.35

0

+0.25

0

+0.50

0

+0.30

0

+0.90

0

+0.70

0

1.50-~2.50

+0.35

0

+0.25

0

+0.40

0

+0.30

0

+0.60

0

+0.40

0

+1.0

0

+0.08

0

2.50-~3.00

+0.40

0

+0.30

0

+0.50

0

+0.40

0

+0.65

0

+0.50

0

+1.2

0

+1.0

0

After consultation between the supplier and the buyer, the width deviation can be positive or negative, but the tolerance value should not exceed the range of the table.

Width tolerances for width and width of cut wide steel strip, coil cut steel plate, slit strip and coil cut strip I (GB/T 3280-2015)

Unit :mm

Nominal thickness

Nominal width

≤125

>125~250

>125~250

>125~250

PW.A

PW.B

PW.A PW.B PW.A PW.B PW.A

PW.B

<1.00

+0.5

0

+0.3

0

+0.5

0

+0.3

0

+0.7

0

+0.6

0

+1.5

0

+2.0

0

1.00-~1.50

+0.7

0

+0.4

0

+0.7

0

+0.5

0

+1.0

0

+0.7

0

+1.5

0

+2.0

0

1.50-~2.50

+1.0

0

+0.6

0

+1.0

0

+0.7

0

+1.2

0

+0.9

0

+2.0

0

+2.5

0

2.50-~3.50

+1.2

0

+0.8

0

+1.2

0

+0.9

0

+1.5

0

+1.0

0

+3.0

0

+3.0

0

3.50-~8.00

+2.0

0

 _

+2.0

0

 _

+2.0

0

 _

+4.0

0

+4.0

0

With the consent of the demander, the product can be delivered less than the nominal width, but it should not exceed the range of the listed tolerances.

With the consent of the demander, the width deviation can be increased to 5mm for slitting products requiring secondary trimming.

Thickness tolerance of narrow strip and coil cut strip II (GB/T 3280-2015)

Unit (mm)

Nominal thickness PT.A PT.B
Nominal thickness Nominal thickness
<125 125~<250 250~<600 <125 125~<250 250~<600
0.05~<0.10 ±0.10t ±0.12t ±0.15t ±0.06t ±0.10t ±0.10t
0.10~<0.20 ±0.010 ±0.015 ±0.020 ±0.008 ±0.012 ±0.015
0.20~<0.30 ±0.015 ±0.020 ±0.025 ±0.012 ±0.015 ±0.020
0.30~<0.40 ±0.020 ±0.025 ±0.030 ±0.015 ±0.020 ±0.025
0.40~<0.60 ±0.025 ±0.030 ±0.035 ±0.020 ±0.025 ±0.030
0.60~<1.00 ±0.030 ±0.035 ±0.040 ±0.025 ±0.030 ±0.035
1.00~<1.50 ±0.035 ±0.040 ±0.045 ±0.030 ±0.035 ±0.040
1.50~<2.00 ±0.040 ±0.050 ±0.060 ±0.035 ±0.040 ±0.050
2.00~<2.50 ±0.050 ±0.060 ±0.070 ±0.040 ±0.050 ±0.060
2.50~<3.00 ±0.060 ±0.070 ±0.080 ±0.050 ±0.060 ±0.070

Note:

1. The supplier and the buyer negotiate and confirm that the deviation value can be all positive deviation/negative deviation or positive and negative deviation asymmetric distribution, but the tolerance value should be within the range of the list.

2. When the thickness is less than 0.05mm, it is negotiated between the supplier and the buyer.

3. The height of the burr on the edge of the strip should be less than or equal to the nominal thickness of the product × 10%

4. t is the nominal thickness

Width tolerances for wide strips and coil cut steel plates, slits for wide strips, and coil cut strips (GB/T 3280-2015)

(unit:mm)

Nominal thickness

PT.A

PT.B

Nominal width

Nominal width

<1250 1250 ~ 2100 600 ~ <1000 1000 ~ <1250

1250 ~ 2100

0.10 ~<0.25

±0.03 _ _ _ _

0.25~<0.30

±0.04 _ ±0.038 ±0.038 _

0.30~<0.60

±0.05 ±0.08 ±0.040 ±0.040

±0.05

0.60~<0.80

±0.07 ±0.09 ±0.05 ±0.05

±0.06

0.80~<1.00

±0.09 ±0.10 ±0.05 ±0.06

±0.07

1.00~<1.25

±0.10 ±0.12 ±0.06 ±0.07

±0.08

1.25~<1.60

±0.12 ±0.15 ±0.07 ±0.08

±0.10

1.60~<2.00

±0.15 ±0.17 ±0.09 ±0.10

±0.12

2.00~<2.50

±0.17 ±0.20 ±0.10 ±0.11

±0.13

2.50~<3.15

±0.22 ±0.25 ±0.11 ±0.12

±0.14

3.15~<4.00

±0.25 ±0.30 ±0.12 ±0.13

±0.16

4.00~<5.00

±0.35 ±0.40 _ _

_

5.00~<6.50

±0.40

±0.45

_

_

_

6.50~<8.00 ±0.50 ±0.50 _ _

_

Mechanical properties of precipitation hardened stainless steel cold-rolled steel plates and strips treated with solution(GB/T 3280——2015)

Unified digital code Grade Steel thickness/mm Specified plastic elongation strength Rp0.2/MPa Tensile strength Rm/MPa Elongation after fractureA①(%)>= Hardness
HBW HRC
<= <=
S51380 04Cr13Ni8Mo2Al 0.10~<8.0 __ __ __ 38 363
S51290 022Cr12Ni9Cu2NbTi 0.30~<8.0 1105 1205 3 36 331
S51770 07Cr17Ni7Al 0.10~<0.30 450 1035 __ __ __
0.30~8.0 380 1035 20 92② __
S51570 07Cr15Ni7Mo2Al 0.10~<8.0 450 1035 25 100② __
S51750 09Cr17Ni5Mo3N 0.10~<0.30 585 1380 8 30 __
0.30~8.0 585 1380 12 30 __
S51778 06Cr17Ni7AlTi 0.10~<1.50 515 825 4 32 __
1.50~8.0 515 825 5 32 __

① Use A50mm sample when thickness is less than 3mm

② HRB hardness value

Annealed Martensitic Stainless Steel Cold Rolled Steel Sheets and Strips Mechanical Properties(GB/T3280-2015)

Unified digital code

Grade

Specified plastic elongation strength

Rp0.2/MPa

Tensile strength

Rm/MPa

Elongation after fractureA①(%)

180 degree bending performance bending head diameter D

Hardness

HBW

HRW HV
>=

<=

S40310

12Cr12 205 485 20 D=2a 217 96 210

S41008

06Cr13 205 415 22 D=2a 183 89 200

S41010

12Cr13 205 450 20 D=2a 217 96 210
S41595 04Cr13Ni5Mo 620 795 15  — 302 32②

308

S42020

20Cr13 225 520 18 223 97

234

S42030

30Cr13 225 540 18 235 99

247

S42040

40Cr13 225 590 15

S43120

17Cr16Ni2② 690 880-1080 12 262-326
1050 1350 10 388

S44070

68Cr17 245 590 15 255 25③

269

S46050 50Cr15MoV ≤850 12 280 100

280

Note: ‘a’  is the bending specimen thickness
①Use A50mm sample when the thickness is less than 3mm

②The table lists the mechanical properties after quenching and tempering

③ HRC hardness value

 

Mechanical properties of annealed ferritic stainless steel cold-rolled steel plates and strips

Unified digital code

Grade

Specified plastic elongation strengthRp0.2/MPa

Tensile strengthRm/MPa

Elongation after fractureA①(100%)

180 degree bending performance bending head diameter D

Hardness

HBW

HRW

HV

>=

<=

S11163 022Cr11Ti 170 380 20 D=2a 179 88 200
S11173 022Cr11NbTi 170 380 20 D=2a 179 88 200
S11203 022Cr12 195 360 22 D=2a 183 88 200
S11213 022Cr12Ni 280 450 18  — 180 88 200
S11348 06Cr13Al 170 415 20 D=2a 179 88 200
S11510 10Cr15 205 450 22 D=2a 183 89 200
S11573 022Cr15NbTi 205 450 22 D=2a 183 89 200
S11710 10Cr17 205 420 22 D=2a 183 89 200
S11763 022Cr17Ti 175 360 22 D=2a 183 88 200
S11790 10Cr17Mo 240 450 22 D=2a 183 89 200
S11862 019Cr18MoTi 245 410 20 D=2a 217 96 230
S11863 022Cr18Ti 205 415 22 D=2a 183 89 200
S11873 022Cr18Nb 250 430 18  — 180 88 200
S11882 019Cr18CuNb 205 390 22 D=2a 192 90 200
S11972 019Cr19Mo2NbTi 275 415 20 D=2a 217 96 230
S11973 022Cr18NbTi 205 415 22 D=2a 183 89 200
S12182 019Cr21CuTi 205 390 22 D=2a 192 90 200
S12361 019Cr23Mo2Ti 245 410 20 D=2a 217 96 230
S12362 019Cr23MoTi 245 410 20 D=2a 217 96 230
S12763 022Cr27Ni2Mo4NbTi 450 585 18 D=2a 241 100 242
S12791 008Cr27Mo 275 450 22 D=2a 187 90 200
S12963 022Cr29Mo4NbTi 415 550 18 D=2a 255 25② 257
S13091 008Cr30Mo2 295 450 22 D=2a 207 95 220

Note: ‘a’  is the bending specimen thickness
1 Use A50mm sample when the thickness is less than 3mm
2 HRC hardness value

Mechanical properties of cold-rolled steel plates and strips 3

Mechanical properties of solution treated austenitic-ferritic stainless steel cold rolled steel plates and strips(GB/T 3280-2015)

Unified digital code

Grade Specified plastic elongation strengthRp0.2/MPa Tensile strengthRm/MPa Elongation after fractureA①(100%) Hardness

HBW

HRC

>=

<=

S21860 14Cr18Ni11Si4AlTi __ 715 25 __

__

S21953

022Cr19Ni5Mo3Si2N 440 630 25 290 31
S22053 022Cr23Ni5Mo3N 450 655 25 293

31

S22152

022Cr21Mn5Ni2N 450 620 25 __ 25
S22153 022Cr21Ni3Mo2N 450 655 25 293

31

S22160

12Cr21Ni5Ti __ 635 20 __ __
S22193 022Cr21Mn3Ni3Mo2N 450 620 25 293

31

S22253

022Cr22Mn3Ni2MoN 450 655 30 293 31
S22293 022Cr22Ni5Mo3N 450 620 25 293

31

S22294

03Cr22Mn5Ni2MoCuN 450 650 30 290 __

S22353

022Cr23Ni2N 450 650 30 290 __
S22493 022Cr24Ni4Mn3Mo2CuN 540 740 25 290

__

S22553 022Cr25Ni6Mo3N 450 640 25 295

31

S23043

022Cr23Ni4MoCuN 400 600 25 290 31
S25073 022Cr25Ni7Mo4N 550 795 15 310

32

S25554

03Cr25Ni6Mo3Cu2N 550 760 15 302

32

S27603 022Cr25Ni7Mo4WCuN 550 750 25 270

__

①Use A50mm sample when thickness is less than 3mm

Mechanical properties of stainless steel cold rolled steel plates and strips in the HI/2 state (GB/T 3280-2015)

Unified digital code

Grade

Specified plastic elongation strength Rp0.2/Mpa

Tensile strength Rm/MPa

Elongation after fractureA①(%)

Thickness <0.4mm

Thickness 0.4~<0.8mm

Thickness

>=0.8mm

S30103

022Cr17Ni7

690

930 20 20

20

S30110

12Cr17Ni7

760

1035 15 18

18

S30153

022Cr17Ni7N

690 930 20 20

20

S30210

12Cr18Ni9

760

1035 9 10

10

S30403

022Cr19Ni10

760

1035 5 6

6

S30408

06Cr19Ni10

760

1035 6 7

7

S30453

022Cr19Ni10N

760

1035 6 7

7

S30458

06Cr19Ni10N

760

1035 6 8

8

S30603

022Cr17Ni12Mo2

760

1035 5 6

6

S31608

06Cr17Ni12Mo2

760

1035 6 7

7

S31658

06Cr17Ni12Mo2N

760

1035 6 8

8

Mechanical properties of stainless steel cold rolled steel plates and strips in the HI/4 state (GB/T 3280-2015)

Unified digital code Grade Specified plastic elongation strength Rp0.2/MPa Tensile strength Rm/MPa Elongation after fractureA①(%)
Thickness <0.4mm Thickness 0.4~<0.8mm Thickness  >=0.8mm

>=

S30103 022Cr17Ni7 515 825 25 25 25
S30110 12Cr17Ni7 515 860 25 25 25
S30153 022Cr17Ni7N 515 825 25 25 25
S30210 12Cr18Ni9 515 860 10 10 12
S30403 022Cr19Ni10 515 860 8 8 10
S30408 06Cr19Ni10 515 860 10 10 12
S30453 022Cr19Ni10N 515 860 10 10 12
S30458 06Cr19Ni10N 515 860 12 12 12
S31603 022Cr17Ni12Mo2 515 860 8 8 8
S31608 06Cr17Ni12Mo2 515 860 10 10 10
S31658 06Cr17Ni12Mo2N 515 860 12 12 12

①Use A50mm sample when thickness is less than 3mm.

Stainless steel definition, types and terms

First, the definition of stainless steel
A high alloy steel that resists corrosion in air or in chemically aggressive media. Stainless steel is aesthetically pleasing the surface and corrosion resistance are good. It is not necessary to perform surface treatment such as plating, but to exert the inherent surface properties of stainless steel.A type of steel used in many ways, often called stainless steel. Representative performance of 13 chrome steel, 18-chrome nickel steel, etc.High alloy steel.From the perspective of metallographic analysis, because the stainless steel contains chromium and forms a thin chromium film on the surface, this film is separated from the steel.Internally invaded oxygen plays a role in corrosion resistance.In order to maintain the inherent corrosion resistance of stainless steel, steel must contain more than 12% chromium.

Second, stainless steel types:
Stainless steel can be roughly classified according to its use, chemical composition and metallographic structure.The austenite type steel consists of 18% chromium-8% nickel, and the amount of each element added varies.Made various types of steel.
Classification by chemical composition:
1. CR Series: Ferritic Series, Martensitic Series
2. CR-NI Series: Austenitic Series, Abnormal Series,Precipitation Hardening Series.
Metallographic classification:
1. Austenitic stainless steel
2. Ferritic stainless steel
3. Martensitic stainless steel
4. Duplex stainless steel
5. Precipitation hardening stainless steel

Third, stainless steel professional terms
1. Austenitic stainless steel: Austenitic stainless steel at room temperature. Steel contains about 18% Cr, Ni 8%~10%,When C is about 0.1%, it has a stable austenite structure. Austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steel includes the famous 18Cr-8Ni steel and Based on this, a high
Cr-Ni series is developed by increasing the content of Cr and Ni and adding Mo, Cu, Si, Nb,Ti and other elements steel. Austenitic stainless steel is non-magnetic and has high toughness and plasticity, but its strength is low and it is impossible to make it through phase change.Strengthening can only be enhanced by cold working. Such as adding S, Ca, Se, Te and other elements, it has good ea Tearability. In addition to corrosion of oxidation-resistant acid media, such steels contain Mo, Cu, and other elements that are resistant to sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid.And formic acid, acetic acid, urea and other corrosion. If the carbon content in this type of steel is less than 0.03% or contains Ti, Ni,Improve its resistance to intergranular corrosion. High-silicon austenitic stainless steel concentrated nitric acid may have good corrosion resistance. Oxygen Body stainless steel has a comprehensive and good overall performance and has been widely used in various industries.
2. Ferritic stainless steel: Stainless steel with ferrite structure in use. Chrome content is 11%~30%, with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. This type of steel is generally nickel-free and sometimes contains small amounts of Mo, Ti, and Nb.This type of steel has many advantages such as high thermal conductivity, small expansion coefficient, good oxidation resistance, excellent resistance to stress corrosion, etc.In the manufacture of resistance to atmospheric, water vapor, water and oxidizing acid corrosion parts. This type of steel has poor plasticity and post-weld plasticity.The corrosion resistance is significantly reduced and other shortcomings, thus limiting its application. Application of outside refining technology (AOD or VOD).It can make carbon, nitrogen and other gap elements greatly reduced, so that this kind of steel is widely used.
3. Austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steel: Austenitic and ferritic stainless steels are approximately one-half of each.In the case where the C content is low, the Cr content is 18% to 28%, and the Ni content is 3% to 10%. Some steels also contain Mo, Cu, Si, Nb, Ti, N and other alloying elements. This type of steel combines the characteristics of austenitic and ferritic stainless steels compared to ferrite., Plasticity, toughness, no room temperature brittleness, resistance to intergranular corrosion and welding performance are significantly improved, while maintaining Holds ferritic stainless steel 475 °C brittleness and high thermal conductivity, with features such as superplasticity. Austenite stainless .Compared with steel, high strength and resistance to intergranular corrosion and chloride stress corrosion resistance are significantly improved. Duplex stainless steel has excellent The resistance to pitting corrosion is also a kind of nickel-nickel stainless steel.
4. Martensitic stainless steel: Stainless steel that can adjust its mechanical properties through heat treatment, in layman’s terms, is a Hardenable stainless steel. Typical grades are Cr13 type, such as 2Cr13, 3Cr13, 4Cr13 and so on. After the fire hardnessHigh, different tempering temperatures with different toughness combinations, mainly for steam turbine blades, cutlery, surgical instruments Mechanical. According to the difference in chemical composition, martensitic stainless steel can be divided into martensitic chromium steel and martensitic chromium nickel steel. root According to different organization and strengthening mechanisms, it can be divided into martensitic stainless steel, martensite  maraging stainless steel.

Stainless steel material knowledge

1. What is stainless steel?

Stainless steel is based on ordinary carbon steel, adding a group of steel with a chromium (wCr) mass fraction of more than 12% alloy element, which maintains metallic luster under the effect of air, that is, it has no rust. This is due to the fact that the presence of a certain amount of chromium alloying elements in such steels enables the formation of a solid oxide film (passivation film) on the steel surface that is insoluble in certain media, so that the metal is isolated from the external substances without chemical effect. In addition to containing more chromium (Cr), some of these steels also match with other alloying elements, such as nickel (Ni), which are very good in air, water, and steam. Chemical stability, but also enough stability in many kinds of acid, alkali, salt aqueous solution, even in the high temperature or low temperature environment, it can still maintain its advantages of corrosion resistance.

2. There are several stainless steel classification methods?

According to the main chemical composition of chromium 316 stainless steel sheet, chromium nickel stainless steel and chromium manganese nitrogen stainless steel, etc.; can also be divided into acid-resistant stainless steel and heat-resistant stainless steel, etc.; usually classified by metallographic organization. Metallographic structure is divided into: ferritic (F) stainless steel, martensitic (M) stainless steel, austenitic – ferrite (A-F) duplex stainless steel, austenite – martensite ( A-M) duplex stainless steel and precipitation hardening (PH) stainless steel.

(1) Ferritic stainless steel F Ferrite has magnetic properties. Its internal microstructure is ferrite, and its chromium content is in the range of 11.5% to 32.0%. However, the carbon content is extremely low at <0.2% and cannot be quenched. With the increase of chromium content, the acid resistance is also improved. After adding molybdenum (Mo), the acid corrosion resistance and stress corrosion resistance can be improved.

(2) Martensitic stainless steel M The microstructure is martensite, and martensitic stainless steel is also magnetic. The mass fraction of chromium in such steel is 11.5%-18.0% but the mass fraction of carbon is up to 0.6%. Increased carbon content increases the strength and hardness of the steel. The small amount of nickel added to this type of steel promotes the formation of martensite while increasing its corrosion resistance. This type of steel has a certain degree of corrosion resistance, good thermal stability, and thermal strength and can be used as a heat-resistant steel that operates at temperatures below 700°C for long periods of time. It is widely used to make parts that require higher toughness and impact toughness, such as turbine blades, internal combustion engine exhaust valves, and medical devices.

(3) Austenitic stainless steel F. Its microstructure is austenite. It is formed by adding appropriate nickel (nickel mass fraction 8%-25%) in high chromium stainless steel (17-26%). With austenitic stainless steel, heat treatment is not used to refine the grain, nor can it be quenched to increase its hardness. This type of steel has a high degree of cold work hardening and is usually non-magnetic. After cold working, a small amount of ferrite or martensite can be precipitated in the steel, and a small amount of magnetism may appear. The austenitic steel sheet has the best overall performance. It has both sufficient strength, excellent plasticity, and low hardness. This is one of the reasons why they are widely used. Austenitic 304L Stainless Steel Bar are similar to most other metal materials. Their tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness increase with decreasing temperature; plasticity decreases with decreasing temperature. Its tensile strength increases rapidly in the temperature range of 15 to 800, and changes slowly when the temperature decreases further, while the increase in yield strength is more uniform. More importantly, as the temperature decreases, its impact toughness decreases slowly, and there is no brittle transition temperature.

(4) Special materials have been developed for the application of other special materials. For example: said austenitic-ferritic double steel, its microstructure is austenite plus ferrite. It contains 18-25% chromium, 4-7% nickel, and 4% molybdenum. Nickel, nickel-copper, nickel-chromium, and other nickel-chromium-based special stainless steels also fall into this category. This special material has special properties, such as ronifer, Nikrofer, AIIoy, ferrotherm, HasteIIoy, IncoIoy, InconeI, MoneI. These materials also have a material number and their chemical composition.

Stainless steel tableware cleaning and maintenance

Stainless steel is made from iron-chromium alloys that incorporate other trace elements. Due to its good metal properties and corrosion resistance compared to other metals, the finished vessel is beautiful and durable. Therefore, more and more are used to make cutlery and gradually enter the majority of families.

Regardless of how many times the manufacturer has magnified the advantages of stainless steel cutlery, its own safety risks are undeniable. The chief physician of Occupational Disease Hospital pointed out that although stainless steel is more resistant to corrosion than other metals, the use of trace metals by  316L Stainless Steel Bar  is inappropriate. Elements will also slowly accumulate in the human body, reaching a certain amount will endanger human health. She said that the nickel in stainless steel is a carcinogen, if too much intake will be harmful to the body. However, experts also stated that in fact, if tableware is not corroded and deteriorated, the use of normal life will have minimal impact on the human body.

Stainless steel tableware cleaning and maintenance

First, do not use alkaline or strong oxidizing chemicals such as baking soda, bleach, sodium hypochlorite, etc. for washing. Because these substances are all strong electrolytes, they react electrochemically with stainless steel to make dishes rust.

Second, before use, a thin layer of vegetable oil can be applied to the surface of the dishes, and then dried on fire. This is equal to the surface of the utensils put on a layer of yellowish oil film “clothes”. In this way, it is easy to use and can increase the service life.

Third, stainless steel cutlery is lower in thermal conductivity than iron and aluminum products, and the heat transfer time is slow. Burning will cause aging and shedding of the chrome plating on the surface of cookware. Therefore, do not avoid burning.

Fourth, salt, soy sauce, vinegar, vegetable soup, etc. cannot be preserved for a long time. Because these foods contain many electrolytes, if they are kept for a long time, the stainless steel will also react with these electrolytes like other metals. Harmful metal elements are dissolved out. Not only damage to the cutlery itself, but also harm the health of the human body.

Fifth, after the use of  17-7 Stainless Steel Aerospace Tubing cutlery, immediately wash with warm water, so as not to oil, soy sauce, vinegar, tomato juice and other substances and utensils surface effect, resulting in the stainless steel surface pale color, even dents.

Sixth, if there is a scale made of hard water, wipe the stain on the stainless steel utensils with a vinegar wipe or a paste of water and water, and then wash with hot soapy water.

Stainless steel features and uses

Series America Standard (ASTM) National Standard (GB) Japanese standard (SUS) Nature Application
200 201 1Cr17Mn6Ni5N SUS201 With acid and alkali resistance, high density, no bubbles, no pinholes, etc., it is used to produce high-quality materials for various cases and straps. Mainly used for decorative tubes, industrial tubes, and some shallow stretched products.
202 1Cr18Mn8Ni5N SUS202 By replacing part of nickel with Mn and N, a good mechanical property and corrosion resistance have been obtained. It is a new type of 321 Stainless Steel Bar that is nickel-retentive. Its room temperature strength is higher than that of 304, and it has good oxidation resistance below 800 degrees Celsius. Medium temperature intensity Mainly used for decorative tubes, industrial tubes, and some shallow stretched products.
2205 00Cr22Ni5Mo3N SUS2205 Its Cr, Mo, and N elements are relatively narrow and can easily reach phase equilibrium (that is, about half of the two phases), improve steel strength, corrosion resistance, and welding performance. They are often used for high performance requirements and require welding. The materials, such as oil and gas pipelines. It is used in heat exchangers, cold showers, and devices that are resistant to seawater, high temperature, and concentrated nitric acid, such as oil refining, chemical fertilizers, papermaking, petroleum, and chemical industries.
300 304 1Cr18Ni9(06Cr18Ni10) SUS304 As a widely used steel, it has good corrosion resistance, heat resistance, low temperature strength and mechanical properties. Punching, bending and other hot workability, no heat treatment hardening (non-magnetic, operating temperature -196 °C ~ 800 °C) Food industry, household goods (1, 2 tableware, kitchen cabinets, indoor pipes, water heaters, boilers, bathtubs)
304J1 SUS304J1 Cu should be added, and its formability, especially wire-drawing and anti-aging cracking, is good, and it can be used to shape complex shapes. Its corrosion resistance is the same as 304 steel. Vacuum flasks, kitchen sinks, pots, pots, insulated lunch boxes, door handles, textile processing machines.
304L 00Cr19Ni10 SUS304L As a low-C 304 steel, its corrosion resistance is similar to that of 304 steel under normal conditions, but its resistance to grain boundary corrosion is excellent after welding or after eliminating stress. It can also maintain good corrosion resistance without heat treatment. It is generally used below 400 (non-magnetic, use temperature -196°C~800°C). Applied to field open-air machines, building materials, heat-resistant parts, and heat-treating parts that require high resistance to grain boundary corrosion in the chemical, coal, and petroleum industries
321 1Cr18Ni9Ti SUS321 Add Ti element in 304 steel to prevent grain boundary corrosion. Suitable for use at temperatures from 430°C to 900°C Medical Appliances, Building Materials, Chemicals, Agriculture, Marine Components, Atomic Energy Industry, Aircraft, Pipeline, Boiler Drum Auto Parts (Windshield Wipers, Mufflers, Molded Products)
316 0Cr17Ni12Mo2 SUS316 Mo should be added, so its corrosion resistance, atmospheric corrosion resistance, and high temperature strength are particularly good and can be used under severe conditions. Excellent work hardening (non-magnetic) Marine equipment, chemicals, dyes, paper. Oxalic acid, fertilizers and other production equipment; photography, food industry, coastal facilities, ropes, CD rods, bolts, nuts
316L 00Cr17Ni14Mo2 SUS316L As a low-C series of 316 steel grades, it has excellent grain boundary corrosion resistance, in addition to the same properties as 316 steel. 316 Steel products that are resistant to grain boundary corrosion and have special requirements.
309S 0Cr23Ni13Mo2 SUS309s 23Cr-13Ni high alloy steel stainless steel, excellent corrosion resistance and strength, suitable for parts with working temperature of 1000 °C Exhaust machines, heat treatment furnaces, heat exchangers, etc.
310S 0Cr25Ni20Si2 SUS310S Very good oxidation resistance, corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance, because a higher percentage of chromium and nickel, 310S has a much better creep strength, can continue working at high temperatures, with good high temperature resistance. Boiler, exhaust machine, heat treatment furnace and heat exchanger
400 409L 00Cr12Ti SUS409L The cheapest model. Due to the addition of Ti, its high temperature corrosion resistance and high temperature strength are better. Ferritic stainless steel (chrome steel) Car exhaust pipe, heat exchangers, containers and other products that are not heat-treated after welding
410 1Cr13 SUS410 The representative steel of martensitic steel, although high in strength, is not suitable for use under harsh corrosive environments. Its processing is good, heat treatment surface hardening (magnetic) Blades, mechanical parts, oil refining equipment, bolts, nuts, pump rods, cutlery (knives, forks)
410S 0Cr13 SUS410
420J1 2Cr13 SUS420J1 High hardness after quenching, good corrosion resistance (magnetic) Cutlery (knife), turbine blades
420J2 3Cr13 SUS420J2 After hardening, the hardness of the steel is higher than that of the 420J1 (magnetic) Blades, nozzles, valves, rulers, cutlery (scissors, knives)
430 1Cr17 SUS430 As a representative type of ferritic steel, low thermal expansion rate, excellent formability and oxidation resistance Heat-resistant appliances, burners, household appliances, type 2 cutlery, kitchen sinks, exterior trim materials, bolts, nuts, CD rods, screens
444 Water tank special board

How stainless steel is made

Stainless steel is a type of steel with greatly increased anti-corrosion properties in comparison with typical, or carbon, steel. This hugely sought-after chemical home is due to the inclusion of chromium through the production of carbon steel. With no the addition of chromium, carbon steel, which can be an alloy of iron and carbon, is extremely susceptible to corrosion, as its iron content readily oxidises, or rusts, in moist circumstances.

History

All through history, since the iron age, numerous try had been created to make metals that had the strength of iron but that would not corrode over a fairly brief time frame. Some attempts had been even more successful than other people. It was formulated within the early 19th century and perfected inside the early 20th century, may be the most beneficial remedy so far. In terms of strength, durability and availability, it is the apparent option for designers and builders of countless merchandise and structures, worldwide.

Rust resistant properties

By adding eleven percent chromium to normal carbon steel alloy for the duration of production, 2205 duplex stainless steel pipe is formed. The enhanced resistance to corrosion is often a outcome of the chromium within the alloy reacting using the surrounding atmosphere to kind a layer of chromium oxide. This provides a protective shield around the surface in the metal that prevents, or drastically reduces, the destructive oxidising with the iron content material of the steel.

Recycling

Once more like most steel it has a further beneficial property. It’s recyclable. Recycling is highly cost helpful, as it really is less costly than generating new steel from smelting and refining of iron ore. The savings are important, and steel businesses recycle steel as a matter naturally. The source material for recycled steel is plentiful, and finds its strategy to steelmakers, by way of scrap dealers and recycling centres, who supply it in the kind of scrapped automobiles, washing machines, refrigerators, cans, building beams, rail tracks, and numerous much more discarded steel and iron based goods.

Makes use of

Recycled 321 stainless steel pipe has equally efficient anti-corrosion properties, but due to residual impurities, certain applications are additional suited than other people. Standard oxygen steel-making, by way of example, is really a method that makes use of around thirty percent of recycled steel in its steel production. The greater malleability of this steel finds makes use of in products that include cans. Recycled stainless steel with higher residual content material is much less malleable, and is utilized in heavy construction.

Production

Just like all steel, is made by smelting, a approach that entails the extraction of iron from iron ore and combining it using a modest percentage of carbon, in the case of carbon steel, and with carbon and chromium in the case of stainless steel. Other components may very well also be added to additional vary the chemical properties on the steel, such as melting point and tensile strength, and so on.

Stainless steel tube

Stainless steel tube might be implemented for many applications. 410 Stainless Steel Rod is actually a highly resilient metal; it doesn’t corrode or rust from typical use. It really is an extremely sturdy difficult metal. Stainless steel can be a form of steel it’s created by heating steel to pretty high heat temperatures exactly where the steel is molecularly changed, there’s also alloys added to help keep the steel from rusting. Steel is manmade and is really a combination of all-natural ores.

Exactly where to buy

Ordinarily an workplace provide store will carry the types of tubes that are made use of for storing fundamental documents or for transporting precious art operate.

416 Stainless Steel Rod tube also can be discovered in hardware or discount household improvement shops. These models are often utilised in fencing applications. You can get also smaller sized models accessible that happen to be made use of for other dwelling improvement applications.

There are actually also models obtainable at auto components retailers, exactly where they’re produced specifically to attach to a tail pipe to dress it up. These are available in a number of widths but are all around precisely the same length. They may be quite often custom match for any distinct kind of vehicle and considering they may be stainless steel they are pretty difficult to cut down.

What to do With the Tube

A stainless steel tube is perfect for storage of something of value. It might hold documents that have been rolled up and photos or other types of art. It is actually a perfect case for holding anything of value that wants to be protected. They’re a bit heavy but nicely worth the protection that they provide.

They are also put to use as dress up kits for cars. You will discover tubes which can be created as step ups on trucks to assist the driver and passengers with getting within the truck. They may be sturdy and sturdy and usually do not rust or corrode. They’re ideal for encasing something that requirements to become laid underground; due to the corrosion resistance and strength these tubes are best for protection and stopping damage to electrical lines and phone cable lines. They are high-priced due to the fact they are so impervious but may very well be worth the cost in specific locations of the country. You will find also tubes that are implemented to dress up the rear finish of vehicles by slipping more than the tail pipe.

What exactly is trade war?

Trade war, also called “commercial war”, is usually a series of retaliation and counter vengeance, called trade war, mainly because some countries restrict other countries’ goods into their very own markets through higher trade barriers, and also compete for foreign markets through such measures as dumping and foreign exchange devaluation. In the event the weapon of trade war is limited to raising tariff price each and every other, it can be named “tariff war”stainless-steel.

Trade barriers are also referred to as trade barriers. The artificial restrictions setup for foreign commodity exchange offices mostly refer to several restrictive measures imposed by a nation on the import of foreign commodity and labor solutions. Two categories of basic tariff barriers and non-tariff barriers

Non-tariff barriers, also known as non-tariff barriers, refer for the sum of all policies and implies for the regulation, management and control of their foreign trade activities by the government of a nation, besides customs duties. It can be roughly divided into two categories: direct and indirect

Tariff barrier is really a technique to restrict and protect against imports of foreign goods by signifies of high import duties and varied import surcharges. This can increase the price of imported goods, thereby weakening its competitiveness and playing a part in safeguarding domestic production and domestic marketplace. It is also a crucial strategy to force the other side to compromise in trade negotiations.

The standard tariff barriers are: tariff peak, tariff escalation, tariff quota, tariff volume and ad valorem tariff.

Tariff escalation: reduced tariffs on imported raw components inside a certain business, even zero tax rates, and also the tariff price of semi-finished solutions and manufactured goods enhanced together with the improvement of processing depth.

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Stainless steel brand and its properties

How and why is stainless steel graded?

It is graded based on its chemical composition, and for that reason its differing properties. It really is valuable to develop into familiar with the principle kinds of, as a single steel is likely to be significantly more suitable than one other for a specific goal. Generally, though stainless steel can resist a lot of forms of corrosion, all grades are most likely to be corroded by chlorides, with those grades that are high in chromium, molybdenum and nickel exhibiting by far the most resistance. Similarly, when some steel is completely non-magnetic, other forms retain their magnetic attraction.

Properties and makes use of of 600 series

Inside a related fashion to the 400 series, 600 series stainless steel could be heat treated to tremendously high strength levels (top towards the popular reference to this series as ‘precipitation hardening’ ), exhibiting tensile strength of up to double the 300 series. It also retains its magnetism. Vulnerable to chloride environments, 600 series is also vulnerable to pressure cracking when corroded. Most 600 series can only remain in seawater without having corrosion for a handful of days. Similarly towards the 400 series, this variety should not be implemented in low temperatures.

Properties and utilizes of 400 series

As opposed to the 200 and 300 series, 400 series 440C Stainless Steel Bar is magnetic. Containing roughly 11% chromium and 1% manganese, this series responds effectively to hardening by means of heat, but has poor resistance to corrosion. Unless protected, 400 series is just not sensible for any type of seawater application. It really is most generally utilized in applications which demand heat resistance, for instance exhaust pipes, heat exchangers, combustion burners and so on. It should not be employed in low temperature environments, as its strength drops rapidly in this circumstance.

Properies and utilizes of 300 series

300 series 304 stainless steel can also be non magnetic, and makes up more than 70% of total stainless steel production. As such it might be found in use across a variety of applications, such as domestic architecture and construction of planes, trains and automobiles. Consisting of roughly 18% chromium and 8% nickel, it is actually also sometimes put to use in kitchen utensils and catering gear, and is related in its corrosion resisting properties for the 200 series. If applied in environments devoid of high chloride content, it’s very proficient at resisting corrosion, but where chloride levels are higher, performance will swiftly decline.

Properties and utilizes of 200 series

200 series stainless steel is non magnetic, and created up of approximately 17% chromium, 4% nickel and 7% manganese. Much less widespread than the 300 series grade, to which it really is most similar, it’s most typically applied for knives and cooking utensils. It retains strength at higher temperatures, and is significantly less prone to attack from corrosion than the 300 series. Once corrosion has begun, then again, it commonly breaks down rapidly. While it can withstand immersion in environments such as seawater, it can’t do so indefinitely, with some corrosion starting inside months.

The significance and application of stainless steel pipe

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310 Stainless Steel Pipe is very likely one of the widest applied materials within the industrial and industrial sectors right now. It is obtained by adding a compact percentage of chromium to a steel alloy. This variety of steel is referred to as ‘stainless’ because it is resistant to corrosion. These corrosion resistant properties are a result on the addition of chromium for the steel alloy.

Sort 316 stainless steel tubing is thought of to become a high-quality tubing material that may be suitable for use in a selection of applications even within the most demanding sectors. Tubing created from such material is utilised for transporting a wide assortment of components that include oil, chemical compounds, hot water, sulphur, gas as well as other supplies. In an ideal predicament.

Additionally to becoming resistant to corrosion, it is actually also low on maintenance and high on durability. These attributes make a stainless steel tube a extensively made use of solution in a range of industries. They are on the market within a assortment of sizes and configurations. They will be implemented in high-temperature applications as well as applications where corrosion is known as a significant concern.

There are lots of higher pressure applications wherein the use of seamless tubing or piping is prerequisite. A seamless tube or pipe is one exactly where you will find no welded joints or seams. These joints or seams can prove to become weak spots in particular in higher pressure applications as this is where leaks and bursts can occur.

Here are some frequent applications of tubing made applying stainless steel:

Automotive makes use of: The handlebars implemented on motorcycles and the piping systems in an automobile need to be each resistant to corrosion, vibration, dust, rain, and other elements of the climate. The use of that is an ideal decision in such situations since meets all of the needed parameters.

Architectural components: There are numerous decorative components similar to handrails, ladders and railings that have to have to appear fine, be resistant to corrosion and last lengthy. In such instances, a stainless steel pipe or tube is fabricated and fitted.

Meals and beverage processing equipment: Inside a meals manufacturing factory, a considerable level of the raw and processed merchandise have to be conveyed via this network. The FDA has laid down various specifications pertaining towards the usage of materials that come in direct make contact with with food. after they are made in line with a distinct grade, are safe to work with with edibles.

Also to this, there are many other applications that include the manufacture of healthcare merchandise, consumer electronics, fitness center gear and more.

Five kinds of annealing methods for stainless steel

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In stainless steel annealing, steel is treated with heat to relieve pressure, reduce hardness, and induce ductility. There are several methods for annealing steel. These methods are applied based on 4 elements that influence every other:

The desired look in the steel surface

The service capacity the steel will probably be used in

The preferred level or anxiety relief or hardness reduction

The crystalline structure with the steel

With these points in thoughts, the following annealing strategies are frequently used for stainless steel:

Bright Annealing

This method is performed to preserve the steel surface good quality whilst removing stress and inducing ductility. Performed in atmosphere controlled furnaces that include an atmosphere of dissociated ammonia or nitrogen / hydrogen, vibrant annealing is the superior solution for removing oxidization from the annealing approach.

Quench Annealing

This technique is performed on austenitic steels to prevent carbides from precipitating in the grain boundaries – a phenomenon referred to as sensitization. Quench annealing prevents sensitization by swiftly cooling steel from 1900 degrees Fahrenheit to a temperature below 900 degrees Fahrenheit applying accelerated gas or water quenching.

Complete Annealing

This technique is performed on ferritic and non-ferritic stainless steels to improve cold workability, dimensional stability, and ability to be machined. The steel is heated to its annealing (roughly 120 degrees Fahrenheit above the austenitic temperature range), held at this temperature for various hours, then furnace cooled to ambient temperature. The outcome is often a high degree of softness.

Procedure Annealing

This approach is performed on martensitic and ferritic steels that do not require maximum softness. Heated to a temperature of among 1400 degrees Fahrenheit and 1525 degrees Fahrenheit, the steel is then cooled at a price of roughly 75 degrees Fahrenheit per hour to induce softness.

Stabilize Annealing

Performed in succession to a different type of annealing, this strategy is performed on steels that include titanium and niobium, and can be utilized in corrosive service situations. The steel is heated to amongst 1600 degrees Fahrenheit and 1650 degrees Fahrenheit, held at this temperature for a variety of hours, then cooled working with accelerated gas or water quenching. The result is the fact that chromium carbide is prevented from precipitating, which serves as an anti-corrosion measure.

Other Heat Remedies for Stainless Steel

In addition to annealing, stainless steel may also undergo tempering, tension relief, and normalizing to eliminate stresses and reduce hardness. Tempering relieves stresses that outcome from quenching and cooling, and to lessen hardness to meet mechanical needs. Anxiety relief reduces stresses that result from cold functioning, machining, flame cutting or welding fabrication. Normalizing is performed on ferrous 316L Stainless Steel Bar as a precursor to hardening, or to enhance their potential to become machined.

Conclusion

Stainless steel is known as a major element in industrial, commercial, and customer goods. Now greater than ever, its usefulness is determined by the annealing methods above and also other heat treatments that prepare it for certain service circumstances. Due to the precision of these processes, producers that use stainless steel elements typically outsource the annealing process to a professional brazing and annealing service.